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一线案例

精益经理——组织中的“夹心层”
Lean Manager – The Sandwich Position in an Organization

WRITTEN BY: TAN YONG WAH/陈勇华 著
文章类别:制造智慧 |电子期刊号: 2010年第4期 总第16期

Lean manager, is an honor position in the organization, some classify it as the GM assistant, since he or she has the power to give order to entire organization for continuous improvement activities. Sound is attractive but what the fact is all the bitter and hardship swallowed. This article is to address the countermeasure for success Lean manager if he/she had to face the little Lean knowledgeable boss or factory GM.
精益经理,是一个组织中受人尊敬的职位。有些团队鉴于处于这个位置的他/她有权利对整个团队的持续改善活动下达命令,因此把这个职位称之为“总经理助理”。听起来很有吸引力的职位,其实则是“有苦自知”。本文为精益经理给出对策,尤其是当他/她不得不面对精益知识欠缺的老板或工厂总经理时。

Listen; here are some of the facts for Lean Manager’s dilemma.
下面是一些精益经理“左右为难”的事实。

“The buddy GM wants me to give my annual review of operational target. Shit! How can I commit to the operational target whereby I have only 1 commander without soldiers? ”
“总经理老兄想让我给出年度运营指标的回顾。该死的!我怎么能够在只有一位指挥官没有任何士兵的情况下给出运营指标的承诺?”

“Whenever I was approaching them for timing the cycle time I quickly found out that their motion suddenly become slows, like the slow motion movie.”
“无论何时当我接近他/她们,想要测量生产周期时间时,我很快就发现他/她们的动作突然就变慢了,就像一场慢动作的电影。”

“5S is excellence! Visual Management is excellence! White board even better! 2 months later, the GM found that the visual board with 2 months old materials displayed…..”
“5S非常好!可视化管理也非常好!目视板更为出色!两个月之后,总经理发现目视化板上的内容仍然是两个月之前的…”

“The calculation cycle time and upon the takt time study we save 2 men, excellence! Wait a minute, after all, I had being told that they cannot meet the schedule output, ending out we gave 2 men back.”
“预测周期时间和节拍时间的学习让我们省了2名员工的人力,好极了!稍等一下,最后我被告知他们不能如期达到产量,结果我们以请回2名员工告终。”

“Standardization is a key for Kaizen continuously, then standard worksheet displayed and couple months later the papers were found sitting in re-cycle tray.”
“标准化是持续改善的关键,然而标准化的工作表在几个月后在回收文件盘上被发现。”

“Kaizen week is great; a week workshop had established the U-shape cell and after the presentation to management, Japanese Sensei applauded, “good job!!” and the next following week, the only straight line cell being seen at shop floor”“改善周是很好的。一周的专题研讨会已经建立了U型细胞单元,在向管理层介绍时,日本的老师称赞我们说,‘做得好!!’而在紧接着的一周中,只有笔直的生产线能在车间工厂中被看到。”

“We need to start the TPM; we should set-up the TPM model line. Lean activities? OK, agreed, let do it. The result is the Model TPM line’s machine without running for months…..”
“我们必须开始实施TPM(全员生产力维护);我们应该建立起TPM的示范线。精益活动?好吧,同意,让我们开始吧。但结果是,TPM示范线的设备几个月都没有启动了…”

OK, after all the difficulties faced, the worse is when the GM declared that’s no improvement at shop floor, all are lies. Then the only way out for Lean Manager is, cut him/her off from the organization and a new one will repeat the same story again.
好。在面对了所有的困难后,最糟糕的是当总经理公然宣布在工厂车间中没有得到一丁点儿的改善及所有这些全都是骗人的时。此时,对精益经理来说唯一的出路就是被踢出团队,一个新的来顶替他的人会将此事重演。

Basically Lean managers are hired with some reasons. Head-quarter has started the Lean initiative and requires all Asia branches should follow the same practices. Company would like to increase the value from customer prospective, Lean initiative is one of them. The new GM found the facility wastes everywhere and would like to improve it.
从根本上说,精益经理这个职位的产生是有它特定的原因的。公司总部主动开始实施精益,则所有亚太地区的子公司也必须跟随总部的脚步。公司愿与客户提升产品价值的前瞻性,推行精益就是其中之一。新进的总经理发现设备废料随处可见,会想要有所改善。

The Lean Manager is hired with purpose but instead of the good show, they turn out to be the other way round. The intelligent of utilization of Lean Manager is became the point that should given more attentions but oddly the market today is not in this practice usually even you are hardly found similarity materials in any Lean books.
精益经理的雇用有其目的,而不是为了一场好看的“秀”。对于精益经理聪明地雇用变成了应该给予更多关注的关键,但奇怪的是如今的市场在这方面的实践中,通常你甚至很难在精益的书籍中找到相似资料。

The Lean knowledgeable GM is always understood how to optimize the Lean Manager that under his/her supervision. Basically the Lean Manager’s responsibilities are:
精益知识渊博的总经理总是明白如何让精益经理在其职责内尽的义务最优化。从本质上说,精益经理的职责如下:

  1. Advise or assist GM to establish the Hoshin (Strategy Deployment) plan for the entire organization
    在整个组织内部建议或帮助总经理建立策略部署。
  2. Give Lean education to entire organization
    为整个组织实施精益培训。
  1. Act as the internal consultant for improvement ideas to entire organization

3.作为内部顾问,担任对整个组织成员改善理念导入的角色。

  1. Facilitator for any Kaizen Workshop

4.作为协调员,协调任何改善车间之间的问题。

  1. Audit shop floor management that includes Standard Work, 5S and Visual Management and give necessary advices to the organization if needed.

5.对车间管理层进行审计,包括标准化作业、5S和可视化管理,甚至对整个组织提出必要的建议。

Consequence, there are some that shouldn’t belong to Lean Manager:
相反地,有些职责并不属于精益经理:

  1. Responsible to operational metrics

1.负责操作流程。

  1. Responsible to shop floor management results

2.负责车间管理的结果。

  1. Responsible to initial the Kaizen activities

3.负责最初的改善活动。

The major challenges since then for Lean Manager are to communicate effectively not only for GM alone but to entire organization about the Hoshin plan that will be created and ensure every employee is in line with the move, and support the plan.
对于精益经理来说最大的挑战是进行有效地沟通。不仅仅与总经理,与此同时在对整个组织进行策略部署的沟通上,将会创造并确保每一位员工行动一致地支持这项计划。

The question here now is how to set-up the effective Lean Hoshin Plan? If you are closed with my previous blog then you should know about 4 phases of Lean deployment strategy (please refer to my previous blog, “Lean Sigma Advantages and Deployment Roadmap”).
这里存在的问题是如何去建立有效的精益策略部署?如果你刚看完我之前的博客,那么你应该知道精益策略部署的4个步骤(请看我以前的博客文章‘精益西格玛的优势和部署路径’)。

In Lean Kick-off phase, the first step Lean manager should do is to study the entire facilities and understand well of Lean level in this organization, then next is 2 ways communicates with factory GM for understanding his/her needs and directions. More communications to his/her senior management some time is required to let you more confident on the Hoshin plan establishments. In agreeable you should present your Hoshin plan to top management team and obtain the commitments. Second step is to conduct the 2 days Lean class for executives and senior management in order to gain the executives’ engagements. The Hoshin plan and deployment strategy/ methods as well as the benefits should include into your training materials. During the kick-off meeting just after the speech of GM you should at least spend 1 hour presentation to let every employees acknowledgeable about the initiative and benefits or “what’s meant for you”. Please remember 1 important key point is made your presentation directs and simples.
在精益的开始阶段,精益经理应该做的第一步是了解这个组织的整体情况以及很好地理解在这个组织中精益所能达到的水平。接下来就是对总经理的要求和所要达到的目标进行双向沟通。更多地与高级管理层中必要的沟通让你在建立策略部署中更有信心。在条件允许的条件下,你应该向最高的管理团队介绍你的策略部署并得到承诺。为了让管理人员参与进来,第二步就是要为行政管理人员及高级管理层展开两天的精益培训。精益策略部署,培训的好处和方法都应该放在你的培训教材中。在启动大会上,你应该在总经理讲话后用至少1个小时的时间让每一位员工认识到你的主动及你所推动的项目所将带来的收益或者认识到“这对你来说意味着什么”。请记住一个非常重要的关键点就是你的演讲要简洁明了。

In Lean Fundamental Set-up phase, the operational director or at least the production manager should be fully engaged. You should ensure the communication well with them for the detail such as the benefits and results expectation, what they should do, what are their responsibilities and yours. The simple 5S and Visual Management training should be given out to all production managers, line supervisors and line leaders. The key point of the training materials is to highlight the expectation from them in shop floor management. Rewards and recognition as well as the punishment (for the worse line) should be clearly define and keep consistence for the entire campaign periods.
在精益基本原则的建立阶段,运营总监或者至少是生产经理应该全程参与。你应该确保在细节上沟通顺畅,比如预期的收获和结果,哪些是他们应该做的?哪些是他们的和你的职责?所有的生产经理、一线主管和一线班组长都应该接受基本的5S和可视化管理的培训。培训资料的关键点是要强调他们对车间现场管理的期望。奖励、认可以及针对比较差的生产线的惩罚措施应该明确定义出来,并且保持整个精益实施过程的执行。

The major goal in Lean Acceptance Phase is to create the Lean culture at shop floor employees. This is done by set-up the SGA culture by engagement to all line employees. SGA activities can and should include following topic; Sometime the effective way is to concentrate on few model line first for limited resources and easy management.
在精益接受阶段,主要的目标是在车间的员工中营造精益的文化。这是随着所有一线员工参与到建立小组活动(SGA)文化中而是实现的。小组活动可以且应该包括以下的这些主题;由于有限的资源,以及便于管理,精益实施有效的方法是首先在示范线上展开。

  1. Shop floor quality improvement

1.车间质量的改善

  1. Establish Work Standard at shop floor

2.在车间建立标准化作业

  1. Operation procedure optimization

3.操作流程的优化

The following training should be conducted for line supervisors and front line supervisor (line leaders);
还应该在生产线主管及一线主管(一线班组长)中实施以下培训:

  1. SGA methodology

1.小组活动方法论

  1. Quality 7 tools

2.质量的七大工具

  1. 7 wastes

3.七大浪费

  1. TWI’s Job Instruction module

4.TWI的工作指导模块

  1. TWI’s Job Relations module

5.TWI的工作关系模块

  1. TWI’s Job Methods module

6.TWI的工作改善模块

Besides, the SGA infrastructure should be set-up that covered SGA committees (chaired by production manager), rewards and recognition, SGA review and SGA presentations. The key point in this phase is to ensure the results to show to management and every employee. You should able to see the tremendous improvement on quality, productivities and cost saving if you do it right in this phase. Sometime the SGA team should include some members from engineering department too in order to enrich the engineering skill in the team for certain improvement activities. Congratulation if you have followed these 3 phases and your organization should achieve continuous improvement culture that key leverage for more Lean transformation next in phase 4.
除此之外,小组活动的基础构架的建设应该包括小组活动委员会(由生产经理为主席)、奖励和认可、小组活动的回顾及报告。这个阶段的关键是确保其结果能向管理层及每一位员工展示。如果在此阶段你所做的每一步都正确的话,你应该可以看到在质量上、生产力及成本的节约上的显著改善。通常小组活动的团队也应该包括来自工程部的一些员工,这是为了能够在某些改善活动中融入更多的工程上的技巧。如果您已经做到了这3个阶段,那么恭喜您,您的团队应该已经建立起了持续改善的文化。并且为接下来的第4阶段中更多的精益改善打好了关键的基础。

In Lean Realization Phase which the improvements are planned to achieve certain operational target. Again the well communications play a vital role for the success of this phase; you should show the Hoshin plan again to management team and obtained their engagement again for the event and show them the way how to achieve it, such as VSM and Kaizen workshop. If the facility is machine domination then TPM should be deployed in order to improve quality and machine effectiveness. Just in Time system should be set-up too for the entire stream of operation and supply chain connections. The key point for any such a system set-up is again the well communication. The objectively training should be planned for everyone involvement in the initiative that should covered management team and shop floor employees.
在精益的实现阶段,改善是为了达成某项企业运营的目标。有效的沟通在此阶段的成功中再次起到重要作用;你应该再次向管理层展示你的策略部署并得到他们的大力支持,与此同时您同样要向他们展示如何去实现,比如VSM(价值流程图)及改善研讨会等手段。如果公司以设备为主,那么应该实施TPM(全员生产力维护)以提高产品的质量和设备的利用率。同时,为了整个运营的流动性以及供应链的连接,准时化生产也应该要开始实施。其关键仍然是良好的沟通。所有参与到改善中的员工,包括管理团队和车间员工都应该接受必要的培训。

What’s the next after this? Well, you should able to relax and have the Starbucks coffee, and waiting for the harvest come. The well established Lean culture company is self-motivation on improvement activities, and your job is to ensure the right directions and provide more Lean tools in order to speed-up the improvement progress and challenge the team for squeegees more improvements.
接下来要做什么呢?恩,我想你应该可以适当地放松一下,或许可以来杯星巴克的咖啡,等待收获的来临。公司内部好的精益文化的建立是改善活动中自发形成的,你的工作就是确保方向的正确性并提供精益工具以加快改善的进程,同时向团队成员提出挑战以求更多的改善。

Of course different company culture and establishment should apply Lean differently but the concept is similarity. It’s increasing the uncertainly especially when you have a little Lean knowledge or someone is not believed in Lean GM. It’s quite hard for you to educate your stubborn GM, in this case you should looking for the help from regional or global Lean team if you have it or advice your GM to take outside reliable training class or any Toyota trip in Japan that organized by local consultant firm. The worse case if the GM spoken this to you, “I am forced to hire someone with Lean expert and I am totally not trusted on Lean”, then the only way out if you cannot convince him/her for the Lean then better you find another company to continue your career path.
当然,不同的公司文化和企业应该有不同的精益,但理念却是相似的。尤其是当你对精益的知识知之甚少或者精益的理念不被总经理相信时,就增加了其中的不确定性。要去教育你固执的总经理是相当困难的。如果是这样的话,在有的情况下您可以从地区或者全球的精益团队中寻求帮助,或者建议总经理可以通过当地的咨询公司参加专业的培训甚至可以参加去日本丰田公司的研修。最糟糕的情况是,如果总经理跟你说,“我是被迫要找一位精益专家的,然而我完全不相信精益能带来任何的成效。”那么,在仍然不能说服他/她的情况下你唯一的出路就是找另一家公司继续你的精益事业。

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