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一线案例

Lean Sigma Advantages and Deployment Roadmap
精益西格玛的优势及战略图

Written by: Tan Yong Wah/陈勇华 著

文章类别:制造智慧 |电子期刊号: 2010年第6期 总第18期


Lean manufacturing and Six Sigma methodologies are well known by most practitioners. However, the merits of both management systems recently have drawn the attention of experts to how best to employ their combination to maximize the benefits to organizations.
尽管精益生产和六西格玛被许多制造行业人士所熟知,然而最近对很多企业来说,两者管理体系的利用整合使得利益最大化的好处却被专家们忽视了。

The marriage of these two techniques from the West (Six Sigma) and the East (Lean) can bring either synergic benefits or disaster to an organization, depending on the practitioners. Let look at the comparison of both, their similarities and differences, in table 1.
源自不同地区的六西格玛和精益生产这两种体系的结合对于一个企业来说可以带来好处的同时也可能伴随着一场灾难,这完全取决于所有运用它们的业内人士。让我们来看看两者的相似和不同处,见表1。

Key Elements基础原理

Lean or TPS 精益生产或丰田生产方式

Six Sigma 六西格玛

Goals目标

Maximizing profits利润最大化

Maximizing profits利润最大化

Key Focus 关键因素

Waste Elimination杜绝浪费

Variation Reduction减少偏差

Kaizen Mechanism 改善方法

1. All employees with SGA (Small Group Activities) System全员参与小组活动
2. Kaizen Week (or Kaizen Blitz)改善周或快速改善系列活动

As part of a Six Sigma project by Black Belt or Green Belt 六西格玛黑带或绿带的小组活动

Kaizen Methodologies改善方法论

Setup the Lean House by all means of Kaizen, especially utilizing the VSM tool通过改善的各个工具,尤其是价值流程图分析的方法建立精益小屋

DMAIC Methodologies (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control)通过DMAIC方法衡量各项指标

Advantages特点

Speed快速

Rigorous严格精确

Table 1: Comparison summary between Lean and Six Sigma精益生产和六西格玛的比较

Both systems are looking to maximize profits but with different philosophies; Six Sigma is working on variation in order to reduce the cost of poor quality and is thus considered a “Rigorous Advantage”, whereas Lean Manufacturing is working on waste in order to create a better flow within the customer’s defined value stream, hence is considered a “Speed Advantage”.
两种体系均以不同的哲学以达到利益最大化的目的。六西格玛利用变量来减少劣质产品的成本,并以“严格”成为其优势;但是精益生产则侧重于对“浪费”的研究,为的是在客户所界定的价值流中创造更好的流动,因此以“快速”著称。

In term of improvement methodologies, Six Sigma is more focused on project management with DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control) techniques whereas Lean Manufacturing encourages everyone relentlessly towards improvement activities by SGA.
在改善方法的术语中,六西格玛更加专注于用DMAIC(定义、测量、分析、改善以及控制)的方法作用于项目管理上,而精益生产则鼓励每一个人通过小组活动进行持续地改善。

The difference of philosophy and Kaizen mechanisms of both practices implies that they are complementary to each other; hence the creation of the idea of their combination became inevitable.
两种体系和实践改善技巧的不同都暗示了它们是彼此互补的,因此两者结合所产生的新的体系则不可避免。

Obviously, the wide range of Kaizen mechanisms have provided a variety of techniques to Lean Sigma practitioners and the two systems do not in any way interfere with each other; SGA should be positioned to promote a Lean Sigma improvement culture among first line operators, and Kaizen week is a rapid change that objectively transforms the old system to Lean System. The key successes of Kaizen week are a time with a full time commitment team, and the introduction of rapid changes at Genba (shop floor) within a week’s exercise. This means that some white elephant (big machines that unable to make the change immediately) type improvement projects might not suitable to be done using the Kaizen week technique. This dilemma can be solved if we introduce project management type improvement to the organization.
很显然,其改善方法涵盖面之广已经提供给使用精益西格玛的人多种多样的方法,而且两种体系在任何方面都不会互相干扰;小组活动一般被用于提升一线操作人员间精益西格玛改善文化的形成上,其中“改善周”是一种快速的方法,能够客观地完成从旧的体系到精益体系的转变。而其成功的关键是同一时间团队紧密合作的结果,比如Genba车间在一周内员工紧密的合作,通过不断地练习完成快速改变的导入。这意味着一些“白象”(大型的机器不能做到快速转变)类型的改善项目或许并不适合用于改善周上。如果我们在企业中引入项目管理的改善方法,这种左右为难的问题将会得以解决。

The Lean Sigma DMASS (Define, Measure, Analyze, Solution and Standardization) against Six Sigma DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control) provides additional Lean tools for problem solving besides the Six Sigma statistical toolset alone. The greatest advantage of these is in Improve phase, where they provide more solutions to the problem. For example a project leader can select JIT for an excess inventory problem, and select TPM for low machine utilization and product quality problems. This compares to pure Six Sigma methodology in which a new solution for the problem must always be created. That eventually increases the project execution efficiency and effectiveness to the organization.
精益西格玛DMASS方法(定义、测量、分析、解决方案和标准化)与六西格玛DMAIC方法(定义、测量、分析、改善和控制)相抵触的同时,除去六西格玛的统计学方法外,精益西格玛提供了额外的解决问题的工具。最大的优势在于改善阶段,它能提供更多的问题解决方案。例如,一位项目经理可以选择用JIT(准时化生产)解决过多的库存问题;选择用TPM(全员生产力维护)解决低设备利用率以及产品质量的问题。这是与原始的六西格玛方法的比较,针对一个新的问题势必有新的解决方案的产生。最终增强了项目的执行率以及对企业的整体效力。

As summarized in the above discussion, the Lean Sigma advantages against the pure Lean and Six Sigma management systems can be categorized into 5 key points; these are:
对于以上讨论的总结,精益西格玛的优势与精益生产以及六西格玛管理体系相抵触,它们可以归纳为5个关键点,分别是:

  1. Retaining the Lean Kaizen DNA and good practices (such as SGA activities, standard work, 5S, Visual Management and Training Within Industry).保持了精益生产改善DNA以及实用的实际操作方法(比如小组活动、标准化工作、5S、可视化管理以及一线班组长技能训练)。
  2. Providing more Kaizen mechanisms (such as SGA, Kaizen week and Project management).提供了更多的改善方法(比如小组活动、改善周和项目管理)。
  3. Developing Lean Sigma experts within an organization (such as Lean Sigma Black Belt and Green Belt).在一个企业内部培养精益西格玛的专家(比如精益西格玛黑带和绿带)。
  4. More tool selections for problem solving (such as JIT, TPM, SMED, VSM and waste analysis).对于问题的解决提供了更多可选择的工具(比如准时化生产、全员生产力维护、价值流图以及浪费的分析)。
  5. Synergizing the “Speed” and “Rigorous” elements.加强了“速度”和“严格”相结合的元素。

Let look at the major differences between DMAIC and DMASS, in table 1. The differences are indicated in bold font.
让我们一起看看DMAIC和DMASS最主要的区别。不同点已用粗体字标出。

Phases阶段

Six Sigma六西格玛

Lean Sigma精益西格玛

Define定义

  1. Define project from customer’s value从客户所界定的价值出发定义项目
  2. Validate the problem确认问题
  1. Define project from customer’s value从客户所界定的价值出发定义项目
  2. Validate the problem确认问题

Measure测量

  1. Understand today’s problem了解目前的问题
  2. Understand process capacity了解工艺流程的最高产量
  1. Understand today’s problem了解目前的问题
  2. Understand process capacity了解工艺流程的最高产量

Analyze分析

  1. Analyze root cause分析根本原因
  1. Analyze root cause分析根本原因
  2. Waste analysis by VSM and Value Added 用价值流图和附加价值对浪费进行分析

Improve/ Solution改善/解决方案

  1. Optimization 最优化
  2. New solution implementation新方案的实施

 

  1. Optimization 最优化
  2. New solution implementation新方案的实施
  3. Control Plan计划的控制
  4. Lean Solution精益解决方案

Control/ Standardization控制/标准化

  1. Standard Work标准化工作
  2. Control Plan计划的控制
  1. Standard Work标准化工作
  2. 5S and Visual Management 5S和可视化管理
  3. TWI’s Job Instructions and Job Methods TWI的两个模块-工作指导和工作改善

 

Obviously, Lean Sigma project management provides more key elements for project executions. Let look at more details of each phase of Lean Sigma project management practices.
很显然,精益西格玛项目管理对于项目的执行提供了更多的关键因素。让我们来看看精益西格玛项目管理实施的更多细节。

In Define phase, the major objectives are to define the customer value and project validation. In this phase, keys to learning are project definition, project scoping, project management, project planning, and customer voice and business voice assessment.
在“定义”这一阶段,最主要的目标是去定义客户所界定的价值以及对项目的进一步证实。在此阶段中,关键是要学习项目的定义、项目涉及的范围、项目的管理、项目计划以及客户的反馈和职责反馈的评定。

The major deliverables of Measure phase are problem confirmation, current situation affirmation in term of process capability and gauging usability. Besides these, simple statistical analysis is applied in order to understand today process behaviors.
而“测量”阶段最主要的产物是问题的确认、在项目工艺流程能力中确认目前的状况以及测定其可用性。除此之外,简单的统计分析的应用是为了更好地了解现有流程的表现。

In Analyze phase, root cause analysis by 5 Why Analysis, Fishbone Diagram, Graphical Analysis and simple Interference Statistics are mostly practiced. Another powerful tool in Analyze phase is the application of VSM (Value Stream Mapping) with 7 wastes analysis; this is to enrich the user with ideas for problem solving possibilities.
在“分析”阶段,用5个为什么、鱼骨图形、绘图分析和简单的干扰分析法来分析根本原因是主要实用的方法。在此阶段另一个有用的工具是通过对7种浪费分析的价值流图的运用,这也是为了让使用者在解决问题时有更多的选择。

In Solution phase, on top of DOE methodology for input factor optimization, Lean tools are introduced with the purpose of enriching the solution selections for problems, such as JIT, TPM, SMED, Jidoka, Poka-Yoke etc. The major change in the Solution phase compared to Improve phase (pure Six Sigma) is the shifting of Control plan and SPC modules into this phase from Control phase, which is preferable since if you look in more detail at Control plan and SPC modules in fact they behave more like solution tools more than sustaining tools.
在“解决方案”阶段,除了用DOE方法优化之外,精益工具导入的目的是为了丰富在解决问题时方法的选择上,比如准时化生产、全员生产力维护、快速换模、自働化、防错等。在解决方案阶段最主要的转变与改善阶段进行比较,是从控制阶段演变而来的控制计划和SPC(统计过程控制)模块的相互转换并用于此阶段中,而这恰恰更为适合。因为如果你看到更多控制计划和SPC模块的细节,实际上它们所表现出来的更像是解决方案的工具而非持续改善的工具。

Standardization phase emphasizes on work standard, which is a key factor for sustaining the improvement cycle. Besides, maintaining the good practices and Lean Sigma culture of front line employees is another factor for the same purpose, and that can be done by the front line supervisor training on TWI’s 3 modules (JI, JM and JR) and introducing world class shop floor management methods like 5S and Visual Management.
而在“标准化”阶段中则强调了工作的规范,它是持续改善得以循环的关键因素。除此之外,保持良好的实践和一线员工间形成的精益西格玛文化是另一个同样有用的因素。一线主管通过运用TWI的三个模块以及5S和可视化管理培训和指导车间人员均可达到“标准化”的目的。

The skills and knowledge developed by this methodology, DMASS, should be transposed effectively into the key employees within the organization, through education by Green and Black Belts. The key difference between Black and Green Belt is that the Black belt basically has a full time commitment to promoting Lean Sigma culture within the organization as well as project execution whereby the Green Belt is a part time Lean Sigma staff member who promotes Lean Sigma functionality as well as project executions.
能力及知识通过此方法得以发展,DMASS应该根据企业内部的实际需求相应地调整顺序并由绿带和黑带培训师对核心员工进行培训。黑带和绿带最关键的区别是,黑带是基于团队紧密的合作在企业中去提升精益西格玛文化,而项目的执行则由绿带负责,他是精益西格玛成员中的一部分,以增强精益西格玛的功能性以及项目的执行。

The proposed deployment road map of Lean Sigma is an initiative for better sustaining business success that I have divided into 4 phases.
精益西格玛被倡导的部属路线图是一种自发主动的行为以达到持续改善的成功,我把它分成4个阶段:

Phase 1: Lean Sigma Kick Off
第一阶段:精益西格玛的开始

Duration is a week or two. 1st step is to educate the top management or executives on Lean Sigma awareness. Obviously this is to ensure the management are strongly engaged and become the change agents for this cultural transformation; it basically represents 5 days Champion training (some companies call this “Management Belt” training”). The 2nd step is an all-employees kick-off meeting, normally this is an hour’s assembly at which the General Manager or CEO will give the start-up speech and let all employees’ acknowledgement or awareness of Lean Sigma initiative. Sometimes the speech should contain some mildly threatening elements and exhort the help of all employees, such as like this statement: “the company might be overtaken by competitors if we are not fast enough to transform our company for the better and I need all your help…..”
在此阶段周期通常为一周或者两周。第一步是培训高层管理者或者主管对于精益西格玛的认识。很明显这是为了确保管理层能够非常支持以及成为此文化得以成功转变的原动力;基本上这是包括5天的管理层意识的培训(一些公司称之为“管理层带”培训)。第二步是进行一场全员的启动/动员大会。通常此种会议为一小时,由总经理或CEO作演讲,让所有的员工明白并认同,同时对精益西格玛产生“主动”的意识。有时演讲应该包含一些适当地“威胁”成分以及劝说以帮助所有的员工进一步理解,比如像这个声明所说的:“如果我们不能足够快地更好地整顿公司内部,公司可能将会被竞争对手超越。所以我需要你们所有人的帮助……”

Phase 2: Lean Sigma fundamental set-up
第二阶段:精益西格玛基本原则的建立

This will take 3 months a period and focuses mainly on 5S and Visual Management introduction to the shop floor. This phase is best carried out in campaign mode in which every line is competed for the best of 5S and Visual Management. Of course rewards should be given out to the best line, and an element which is always being overlooked is forgotten to identify the worst line at the same time. This is critical as the best line is always in the top 3 and some time some front line supervisors are not too bothered about it, but they do care about not coming last place in the competition.
这个阶段会花3个月集中专注于在车间内部的5S和可视化管理的导入。这个阶段是最好的以“运动”的方式贯彻执行的阶段,每一条生产线为争夺“最佳5S和可视化管理产线”进行比赛。最终获得最佳的那条生产线会给予奖励,与此同时有一个方面通常会被我们所忽视,就是忘记找出做得最差的那条生产线。当最佳的生产线总是位于前3名时,一般一线主管通常不会在意,这往往也是危机并存的时刻。但通常他们会非常在意不要在类似的比赛中垫底。

Phase 3: Lean Sigma Acceptance Phase
第三阶段:精益西格玛的认可阶段

This phase needs another 3 months time frame. The first batch of Green Belt training should be carried out in this phase with project execution by each Green Belt. Besides this, the front line supervisors should be given training too such as TWI training, SGA methodology training and Quality 7 tools training. This training is critical not only to enhance the industry skills of front line supervisors but also encourage and engage them in shop floor improvement activities for better productivity, safety and quality.
这一阶段通常另外需要大致3个月的时间。第一批的绿带培训应该由每一位绿带培训师在这一阶段被贯彻执行。除此之外,一线主管也必须接受培训,比如TWI、小组活动和质量的7种工具的培训。这些培训是至关重要的,它不仅仅在于加强一线主管的实践技能,而且也鼓励他们参与到为了提高生产力、生产安全及产品质量的车间改善活动中去。

Phase 4: Lean Sigma Realization Phase
第四阶段:精益西格玛的领会阶段

In this phase the realization and Lean transformation takes place in which Kaizen activities are objectively planned either to reduce the variation or to eliminate the existing wastes present in any stream of the business model. The value stream mapping exercise mostly is advised in this phase in order to establish the Kaizen Blue Print for the whole business stream. The top management should set and give the operational or business target to the teams and closing review and follow up for the improvement progress. The major systems possible to implement in this phase as depart from the Value Stream Mapping Kaizen Blue Print, such as implementation of JIT and TPM. The strategic Black Belts’ training should be planned too in order to develop successors (Lean Sigma experts) for the future and strengthen the deployment process.
在这一阶段中,从对精益生产的认识到领会这一观念上的转变是发生在被客观有序地减少变量或者消除存在的浪费的改善活动期间任何示范线的“流”中。价值流图的实际运用主要建议用于此阶段,是为了在整个流建立改善蓝图。高层管理者应该建立和给予团队可操作的或者公司的目标以便检查回顾以及跟进改善的进程。主要体系的实施正是在这一阶段,比如背离了价值流图的改善蓝图,比如准时化生产和全员生产力维护的实施。黑带培训的策略同样是为了有计划地发展继任者以确保和加强将来部属的进程。

In summary, the advantages of the Lean Sigma management system are hard to deny however, the process bias of deployment and misunderstanding its philosophy can bring unwanted results. Especially when the company is deploying 2 different teams to work on two different subjects, this is surely will create the non-healthy competition either for resources or creditability. Another pitfall for Lean Sigma deployment is to make one system dominate another one, for example to hire a Six Sigma Master Black Belt to promote a Six Sigma project when the whole company is applying Lean infrastructure and positioning Six Sigma as the enhancement of project execution by Green or Black Belts. This strategy will make the Six Sigma team feel misused and lose their momentum. Conversely, to put the application of Lean tools under the Six Sigma DMAIC methodology will lose the advantages of creating the shop floor improvement culture, thus sustaining improvements due to Green/Black Belts’ projects becomes very hard.
综上所述,不管怎样精益西格玛管理体系的优势是难以被确认的。其进程偏重于部属和对它的误解则会带来不可预期的后果。尤其是当一个公司在部属两个不同的团队针对两个不同的主题时,如此一来肯定会造成不健康的竞争关系,不管是对于资源还是担保能力。对于精益西格玛部属的另一个陷阱是去用一个系统去支配另一个,例如当公司用精益生产作为基础设施的同时配置由绿带或者黑带培训师的六西格玛团队作为加强项目的执行时,去雇佣一个六西格玛黑带去提升一个六西格玛项目。这种策略将使得六西格玛团队感到异常不妥的同时也失去了他们改善的原动力。相反地,导入精益工具的运用在六西格玛DMAIC方法论的前提下将失去创造车间改善文化的优势,如此这般,由绿带或黑带培训师负责的持续改善项目将变得异常困难。

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